Research: the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Risk of sexual HIV transmission in heterosexual relationships that involve HIV positive pedophiles (men who sexually exploit/abuse boys) and their HIV negative female partners (their wives, girlfriends & lovers). Our findings suggest minimal risk of sexual HIV transmission for heterosexual serodiscordant couples when the HIV-positive partner has full viral suppression on cART with caveats regarding information on sexual intercourse type, STIs, and condom use. (see, Systematic review of HIV transmission between heterosexual serodiscordant couples where the HIV-positive partner is fully suppressed on antiretroviral therapy www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
Church of England
The first guidelines in the Church of England were issued by the House of Bishops in 1995 following the publication of the Government policy on Child Protection ‘Safe From Harm’ (1993). The Guidelines stated that no cleric convicted of serious child sexual offences should be allowed to work with or close to children.
In 2004 the Church of England published their Child Protection/Safeguarding Guidelines and Procedures “Protecting All God’s Children” which reflected the Government’s new child protection agenda “Every child matters”.
In 2007 the House of Bishops asked all Dioceses to review past cases/reports of child sexual abuse held on clergy and other church personnel files. Some Bishops commissioned independent consultants to review the files and others decided to do it internally.
In 2009 the Church of England completed the Past Case Review. Only a 3 page summary of the Past Cases Review report was made available to the public. The report states that only 13 files were found to cause concern requiring any action to be taken, and of these 11 were sent to statutory authorities.
In 2010 the Child Protection Procedures for the Church of England were updated: “Protecting All God’s Children” (www.churchofengland.org/clergy-office-holders/child-protection-safeguarding.aspx).
The British Empire in the Victorian-era, formed more overseas branches of the Church of England, also known as the Anglican Communion. As countries became sovereign and/or independent states, although many of their churches became separate organizationally and go by different names (Episcopals, Evangelicals, Anglo-Catholics), they remained linked to the Church of England through the Anglican Communion. For instance, the Anglicans in America had their bishops consecrated by the Scottish (who were also anti-English). Because Anglican means English, both the Scottish and American Anglicans chose the name Episcopal, meaning "with bishops."
In 2014 there are more practicing Anglicans in Nigeria than there are in England, America and Canada combined. The New World Bishops of various breakaway denominations of Anglo-Catholic complexion, are powerful due to the numbers of their congregations. Many of these Bishops embrace ideas held by the Catholic Church.
The implementation of "best practices" global & public health policies are hampered in epidemics when an individual's ideas fuel stigma and community leaders choose to prevent access to knowledge & treatment that save valuable lives. For instance, in today's HIV/AIDS pandemic.
An individual's beliefs become of concern when they contribute significantly to a culture of secrecy that perpetuates horrifying consequences for survivors of human rights abuses. For instance, when discriminatory beliefs and practices exacerbate the physical, pyschological and social trauma experienced by sexually abused, raped and exploited men, boys, transgender and LGTB youth; and in many places prevent survivors from accessing appropriate & humane support within their communities.
WE WILL SPEAK OUT. “Silence No More: The untapped potential of the church in addressing sexual violence” (2011).
Mr Michel Sidibe, Executive Director of UNAIDS, said: “UNAIDS will of course work the Church… It isn’t just breaking the silence that will help us, though that is essential, we also need societal change – so the Church will be critical for us.”